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IUPAC Glossary of Terms Used in Toxicology, 2nd Edition



ADI: Acceptable daily intake

ADME: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion

ADMET: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicokinetics

AF: Assessment factor

AIC: Akaike Information Criterion, C: a measure of the goodness of fit of an estimated statistical model calculated in the general case from the equation
akaike information criteria equation

ALARA(P): As low as reasonably achievable (practicable)

ASP: Amnesic shellfish poisoning

ATP: Adenosine triphosphate

AUC: Area under the concentration-time curve

AUMC: Area under the moment curve

BAC: Bacterial artificial chromosome

BAL: British anti-Lewisite

BCF: Bioconcentration factor

BEI: Biological exposure indices (ACGIH)

BEM: Biological effect monitoring

BMC: Benchmark concentration

BMCL: Confidence limit for BMC

BMD: Benchmark dose

BMDL: Confidence limit for BMD

BMDS: Benchmark dose at a given standard deviation

BMR: Benchmark rate

BOD: Biochemical oxygen demand

BOD: Biochemical oxygen demand, Biological oxygen demand

b.w., b.wt.: Body weight

cDNA: Complementary DNA

CMR: Carcinogenic, mutagenic and reproductive (toxicant)

COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand

CoMFA: Comparative molecular field analysis

COPC: Compound of probable concern

CRM: Certified reference material

CSAF: Chemical specific adjustment factor

CTD: Common Technical Document (drug registration)

CYP: Cytochrome P450

Cyt: Cytochrome

CV: Ceiling value

D: Absorbed dose of radiation

DDT: Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNEL: Derived no-effect level

DSP: Diarrheal shellfish poisoning

EC: Effective concentration, Enzyme Commission, European Community

EC50: Median effective concentration to 50% of a population

ECn: Median effective concentration to n% of a population

eCTD: Electronic Common Technical Document (drug registration)

ED: Effective dose

EDI: Estimated daily intake

ED50: Median effective dose to 50% of a population

EDn: Median effective dose to n% of a population

EEC: Estimated environmental exposure concentration, estimated exposure concentration, expected environmental exposure concentration

EED: Estimated exposure dose

EEL: Environmental exposure level

EIA: Environmental impact assessment

EIS: Environmental impact statement

ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EMDI: Estimated maximum daily intake

EQO: Environmental quality objective

EQS: Environmental quality standard

ERL: Extraneous residue limit

EST: Expressed sequence tag

ETS: Environmental tobacco smoke

f: Toxicity equivalency factor

F: Fraction of dose absorbed; bio-availability

FONSi: Finding of no significant impact

GAP: Good agricultural practice

GCP: Good clinical practice

GHS: Global harmonization system for classification of hazardous substances

GLP: Good laboratory practice

GFR: Glomerular filtration rate

GMO: Genetically modified organism

GMP: Good manufacturing practice

GRAS: Generally Regarded As Safe

HAL: Health advisory level

HAZOP: Hazard and Operability Study

HEQ: Human equivalent dose

HSG: Health and Safety Guide (IPCS)

HQ: Hazard quotient

i.c.: Intracutaneous

IC: Inhibitory concentration

ICn: Inhibitory concentration to n % of a population

i.d.: Intradermal

ID: Inhibitory dose

IDn: Inhibitory dose to n % of a population

IDLHC: Immediately dangerous to life and health concentration

i.m.: Intramuscular

inhl: By inhalation

i.p.: Intraperitoneal

I-TEF: International toxicity equivalency factor

i.v.: Intravenous

Kd: Soil partition coefficient

KM: Michaelis constant

Koc: Organic carbon partition coefficient

Kow: Octanol water partition coefficient

KD: Partition ratio

LADD: Lifetime average daily dose

LCmin: Minimum lethal concentration

LCn: Median concentration lethal to n % of a test population

LC50: See LCn

LD: Lethal dose

LDmin: Minimum lethal dose

LDn: Median dose lethal to n % of a test population

LD50: See LDn

LED: Lowest effective dose

LEDx: Lowest effective dose for a biological effect in x% of the individuals in the test population

LEL: Lowest effect level, same as LOEL

LOEL: Lowest observed effect level

LOAEL: Lowest observed adverse effect level

LTn: Median time for death of n % of a test population

LV: Limit value

MAC: Maximum allowable concentration

MAK: Maximal arbeitsplatz konzentration (German)

MCL: Maximum contaminant level

MCLG: Maximum contaminant level goals

MCS: Multiple chemical sensitivity

MEL: Maximum exposure limit

MF: Modifying factor

MFO: Mixed function oxidase

MN: Micronucleus

MOE: Margin of exposure

MOS: Margin of Safety

MPC: Maximum permissible concentration

MPL: Maximum permissible level

MRL: Maximum residue limit

MRL: Minimal risk level (ATSDR)

MRT: Mean residence time

mRNA: Messenger ribonucleic acid

MSDS: Material safety data sheet

MTC: Maximum tolerable concentration

MTD: Maximum tolerable dose, Maximum tolerated dose

MTEL: Maximum tolerable exposure level

NADP(H): Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced)

NAG: N-acetyl-D-glycosaminidase

NCn: Median concentration narcotic to n % of a population

NDn: Median dose narcotic to n % of a population

NED: No effect dose

NEL: No effect level, same as NOEL

NOAEL: No observed adverse effect level

NOEL: No observed effect level

NRL: No response level

NSAID: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSC: Normalized sensitivity coefficients

NSP: nanosized particles; nanoparticles (ultrafines)

OEL: Occupational exposure level

OES: Occupational exposure standard

OR: Odds ratio

PADI: Pseudo-acceptable daily intake

PAH: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PBPK: Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling

PBPD: Physiologically based pharmacodynamic modeling

PBTK: Physiologically based toxicokinetic modeling

PBB: Polybrominated biphenyl

PCB: Polychlorinated biphenyl

PCC: Population critical concentration

PCDF: Polychlorinated dibenzofuran

PCR: Polymerase chain reaction

PEC: Predicted environmental concentration

PEL: Permissible exposure limit

PBT: Persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic

p.c.: Per cutim (Latin) = Through the skin

PEL: Permissible exposure limit

PIPs: Persistent inorganic pollutants

PM0.1: Ultrafine particles in air with a maximum aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 µm

PM2.5: Particles in air of with a maximum aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm

PM10: Particles in air of with a maximum aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm

PMR: Proportionate mortality rate, ratio

PNEC: Predicted no-effect concentration

p.o.: Per os (Latin) = By mouth

POPs: Persistent organic pollutants

POW: Octanol water partition coefficient

Q: Quality factor (radiation)

PPAR: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PPD: Personal protective device

PPE: Personal protective equipment

PSP: Paralytic shellfish poisoning

PTWI: Provisional tolerable weekly intake

QSAR: Quantitative structure-activity relationship

3D-QSAR: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship

QSMR: Quantitative structure-metabolism relationship

RD: Rate difference

REL: Recommended exposure limit (NIOSH)

RER: Relative excess risk

RfC: Reference concentration

RfD: Reference dose

RIA: Radio-immunoassay

RME: Reasonable maximum exposure

RNA: Ribonucleic acid

RNS: Reactive nitrogen species

RR: Rate ratio; relative risk

ROS: Reactive oxygen species

S-9: Rat liver microsome preparation

SAR: Structure-activity relationship, Standard absorption rate

s.c.: Subcutaneous

SCE: Sister chromatid exchange

SD: Standard deviation

SE: Standard error

SF: Safety factor

SMR: Standard mortality ratio, Structure-metabolism relationship

SNARL: Suggested no-adverse-response level

SNP: Single nucleotide polymorphism

SPF: Specific pathogen free

STEL: Short term exposure limit

t1/2: Half life, half time

Teq: Toxicity equivalent

TBPK: Toxicologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling

TCDD: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorooxanthrene]

TDI: Tolerable daily intake

TEF: Toxicity equivalency factor

TEQ: Toxicity equivalent

TER: Toxicity exposure ratio

TLn: See LTn

TLV: Threshold limit value (ACGIH)

TLV-C: Ceiling threshold limit value (ACGIH)

TLV-STEL: Threshold limit value (ACGIH) - short term exposure limit

TLV-TWA: Threshold limit value (ACGIH) - time weighted average

TMDI: Theoretical maximum daily intake

TTC: Threshold of toxicological concern

TWA: Time-weighted average

TWAC: Time-weighted average concentration

TWAE: Time-weighted average exposure

TWI: Tolerable weekly intake

UDP: Uridine diphosphate

UF: Uncertainty factor

Vmax: Maximum velocity

VOC: Volatile organic compound

vPvB: Very persistent and very bio-accumulative

VSD: Virtually safe dose