INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY / CHEMISTRY AND HUMAN HEALTH DIVISION*

IUPAC GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN TOXICOLOGY, 2nd EDITION - IUPAC RECOMMENDATIONS 2007

Published in Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 79, No. 7, pp. 1153-1344, 2007

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Prepared for publication by:

JOHN H. DUFFUS1, MONICA NORDBERG2, DOUGLAS M. TEMPLETON3

1The Edinburgh Centre for Toxicology, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom; 2Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

*Membership of the Committee of the Chemistry and Human Health Division during the preparation of this report (2004–2006) was as follows:

President: P. W. Erhardt (USA, 2004–2006); P. Soares de Araujo (Brazil, 2006); Secretary: B. Heinzow (Germany, 2004–2005); M. S. Chorgade (USA, 2005–2006); Past President: A. Kallner (Sweden, 2004–2005); P. W. Erhardt (2002–2006); Members: M. S. Chorghade (USA, 2004–2006); J. H. Duffus (UK, 2004–2006); J. Fischer (Hungary, 2004–2006); U. Forsum (Sweden, 2004–2005); M. N. Liebman (USA, 2004–2006); M. Nordberg (Sweden, 2006); P. Soares de Araujo (Brazil, 2004–2006); D. M. Templeton (Canada, 2006); H. Timmerman (Netherlands, 2004–�2006).

Corresponding author: John H. Duffus, The Edinburgh Centre for Toxicology, 43 Mansionhouse Road, Edinburgh EH9 2JD, Scotland, UK;
E-mail: J.H.Duffus@blueyonder.co.uk


Republication or reproduction of this report or its storage and/or dissemination by electronic means is permitted without the need for formal IUPAC permission on condition that an acknowledgment, with full reference to the source, along with use of the copyright symbol ©, the name IUPAC, and the year of publication, are prominently visible. Publication of a translation into another language is subject to the additional condition of prior approval from the relevant IUPAC National Adhering Organization

IUPAC GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN TOXICOLOGY, 2nd EDITION - IUPAC RECOMMENDATIONS 2007
Abstract: This glossary, a revision of the IUPAC “Glossary for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology” [Pure Appl. Chem. 65, 2003 (1993)] incorporating new and redefined terms from the “Glossary of Terms Used in Toxicokinetics” [Pure Appl. Chem. 76, 1033 (2004)], contains definitions and explanatory notes, if needed, for terms frequently used in the multidisciplinary field of toxicology. The glossary is compiled primarily for those scientists and others who now find themselves working in toxicology or requiring a knowledge of the subject, especially for hazard and risk assessment. Many medical terms are included because of their frequent occurrence in the toxicological literature. There are three annexes, one containing a list of abbreviations and acronyms used in toxicology, one containing a list of abbreviations
and acronyms used by international bodies and by legislation relevant to toxicology and chemical safety, and one describing the classification of carcinogenicity according to the weight of evidence available.
Keywords: toxicology; toxicokinetics; risk assessment; hazard assessment; carcinogenicity; IUPAC Chemistry and Human Health Division.
Note: Terms for which no primary source is given have been taken verbatim from the original IUPAC “Glossary for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology” [1] or have been newly defined by the compilers of this paper. New or redefined terms in the “Glossary of Terms Used in Toxicokinetics” are currently referenced as in that glossary [2]. Other terms which are quoted verbatim from their sources are referenced individually. For other chemical terminology, the reader is referred to the online version of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Compendium of Chemical Terminology (The Gold Book) [3]
CONTENTS

PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ANNEX 1: ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS USED IN TOXICOLOGY LITERATURE
ANNEX 2: ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS OF NAMES OF INTERNATIONAL BODIES AND LEGISLATION
ANNEX 3: CLASSIFICATION OF CARCINOGENICITY
REFERENCES

PREFACE

IUPAC aims to promote world-wide “regulation, standardization, or codification” in relevant areas of chemistry. In 1993, the importance of toxicology to chemists was recognized by the publication in Pure and Applied Chemistry (PAC) of the “Glossary for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology” [1]. This
glossary has been widely accepted and used, but, inevitably, with the continuing development of both chemistry and toxicology, terms have changed their meanings as a result of altered usage and new terms have been coined. Further, some important terms were overlooked, notably those relating to toxicokinetics, and a supplementary glossary has already been published in PAC [2]. The revised and extended glossary presented here includes all new terms identified as relevant by the Working Party, together with those in toxicokinetics previously omitted. As before, the glossary is compiled primarily for chemists who now find themselves working in toxicology or requiring a knowledge of the subject. However, there are also many other scientists as well as regulators and managers who have to interpret toxicological information and need ready access to internationally accepted definitions of relevant terms in common use. In order to make this a convenient one-stop glossary, the terms included in this glossary have come from
a wide range of disciplines which contribute to toxicology. For some of the entries, alternative definitions are given in order to display the significant differences in the use that occur in practice.

We are grateful to all those whose names are listed below who have contributed to this glossary with constructive criticism and who have suggested modifications for its improvement. Their contributions have been invaluable. The Working Group is responsible for any remaining flaws, but we hope
that the final version will be sufficiently close to achieving the original objectives to justify the very widespread support that we have received.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

For their valuable comments and suggestions for improvements, the authors are very grateful to the following contributors to this glossary: Ole Andersen, Rick Becker, Joseph Borzelleca, Rita Cornelis, John Fowler, Philippe Grandjean, Birger Heinzow, Jane Huggins, Paul Illing, Marek Jakubowski, József Nyitrai, Stephanie Publicker, Mike Schwenck, Ron Shank, Wayne Temple, Philip Wexler, Howard Worth, and Paul Wright.